In vivo applications


In vivo (lat. "in living [organisms]") describes a scope of assays which take place in living organisms. Usually monoclonal antibodies which are tagged with fluorescent dyes are made use of for in vivo studies, such as understanding metabolic pathways or mechanisms of diseases. In Contrast to in vitro experiments in vivo assays are subject to more restrictions because the physiological conditions can differ extremely. To make sure there is no more harm than necessary in vivo experiments need to be regulated strongly.



In vivo diagnostics in cancer research are e.g. radioisotope-marked (m99Te) antibodies, which emit strong gamma rays that are easy to detect. These antibodies are directed against tumors or inflammation cells of which epitopes are well known. Some examples are:

  • Arcitumomab (helps with osteomyelitis)
  • Sulesomab (helps with colorectal carcinoma)

Therapeutic options

Tumor therapy

Initiation of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) on metastasis endangered cells with the help of Edrecolomab. No effect has been determined on solid tumors. The product, however, got taken off market in 2000 because results could not be reproduced again.

Rejection of transplants

Muromonab is the first murine, monoclonal antibody which has been approved as immunosuppressant. The antibody causes an elimination of CD3 cells in bloodstream, which amount to 70% of leucocytes in the blood stream. The elimination leads to a lower probability of transplant rejection.

Generally antibodies which are used in therapeutics are in need of optimization because they usually are produced in murine systems and can be considered as antigen in the human organism. This results in loss of effect. Latest research tries to bypass this problem by creating chimeric antibodies, which contain murine specifity for the antigen but general human structure of the antibody.

More informationen around the topic of in vivo antibodies can be found here.

Range of Hölzel Diagnostika

In VivoPlus™ by Bio X Cell offers antibodies of highest quality

  • low in endotoxin (≤0,001 EU/µg)
  • ≤ 5% protein aggregates

Confirmed by ELISA and FC.

  • free of murine pathogenes
  • free of carrier proteins
  • free of azides

Suitable for:

  • highsensitive assays
  • in vivo studies
  • live cells
  • hole animals

In VivoMab™ by Bio X Cell offers antibodies of highest quality:

  • low in endotoxin (≤0,002 EU/µg)
  • free of carrier proteins
  • free of azides

Suitable for:

  • Preclinical studies
  • in mouse models
  • Neutrlisation and blocking systems
  • Flow cytometry
  • Diagnostics
  • In vitro applications

ReadyTag™ by Bio X Cell offers antibodies:

  • Directed against most common protein-tags (e.g. His Tag, GFP, c-myc)

Suitable for:

  • Basic biologiccal research
  • Structural and funtional proteomics
  • Facilitation of purification and detection of proteins of interest
  • Separation of protein complexes

Have a look at the broad range of Bio X Cell products