Coronavirus (COVID-19)


The crown-like spikes on the surface of the virus give the viruses of the Coronaviridae family their name: Corona is Latin for crown or wreath.

So far, seven types of Coronaviridae are known to be able to infect humans.

  1. HCoV-229E
  2. HCoV-NL63
  3. HCoV-OC43
  4. HCoV-HKU1
  5. MERS-CoV
  6. SARS-CoV
  7. SARS-CoV-2

The SARS-like coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (formerly 2019-nCoV) was first discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan City, China. Since then, the virus has spread at an enormously rapid rate, so that there is now talk of a global outbreak. Numerous quarantines have been ordered to protect patients at risk and to prevent infection, and the everyday life of many people in the affected areas is severely restricted.

A characteristic feature of the Coronaviridae virus family is the length of its genome: With approximately 30,000 nucleotides, the single-stranded RNA genome is the longest among the RNA viruses. It codes for different proteins, which all have unique functions. These include, among others, the spike protein, N protein, HE protein, the papain-like protease and the M protein.

Due to its genetic preservation, the N (nucleocapsid) protein is used as a diagnostic marker. A target for vaccines and antibodies is the spike protein, which is responsible for binding to surface receptors on the host cell. Therefore, the latter protein and its interaction with the host cell receptor is also a central linchpin for coronavirus infection.

Similarly, other viruses also show binding to characteristic surface receptors: The viruses HCOV- NL63, SARS-COV and the new SARS-COV-2 viruses all bind to the ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptor. In contrast, the MERS-COV virus binds selectively to the DPP4 (dipeptidyl peptidase 4) receptor. Binding receptor for the HCOV-229E virus is the APN (aminopeptidase N) receptor. HKU1 and OC43 on the other hand bind to O-ac Sia.

After an infection, affected people develop symptoms of disease within the respiratory tract, which can have varying degrees of severity.

The Cytokine Storm

Cytokine Storm - Definition

Cytokine storm is the excessive reaction of the immune system to external stimuli such as the intrusion of a SARS-CoV-2 virus. The term hypercytokinemia is used as a synonym and it represents a dangerous form of the cytokine release syndrome (CRS).

Cytokine storm - background

When infected with a pathogen, T cells and macrophages release so-called cytokines. Cytokines can be divided into five categories: chemokines, interferons, interleukins, colony stimulating factors, tumor necrosis factors.

Thus, these immune cells use cytokines to ensure that further immune cells are directed to the site of penetration, that an inflammatory reaction improves blood circulation in the tissue and that a comprehensive immune response can be initiated.

The best known cytokines in this context are TNF-alpha, Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 and the chemokines CCL2, CCL5, CXCL10 and CXCL9. Normally, this immune reaction is then shut down again. In case of a cytokine storm, however, this is not the case. In this case there is a self-reinforcing, i.e. positive feedback of the process.

This leads to a complex pathogenesis, which initially causes a deterioration of the health status and in some cases even an increase in the mortality rate. This is usually due to organ failure caused by the excessive accumulation of immune cells at the site of inflammation.

Therefore, a major focus of COVID-19 research is the understanding and therapy of such a cytokine overreaction. For your easy and cost-efficient research on these highly interesting cytokine dynamics we offer you numerous enzyme immunosorbent assays (ELISA) from numerous high-quality manufacturers.

Cytokine storm - symptoms

Typical symptoms of a cytokine storm include fever, swelling, redness, fatigue and nausea.

To accelerate COVID-19 research and detection, we offer a variety of tools for human coronavirus research.



A selection of coronavirus proteins and associated products

Products Manufacturer Art. No.
N Protein
SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Nucleoprotein / NP ELISA Kit Sino Biological KIT40588-1
SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Nucleoprotein / NP Antibody, Rabbit MAb Sino Biological 40143-R019-50
Recombinant Human SARS coronavirus Nucleoprotein(N) Cusabio CSB-BP349523HQE
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19) Nucleoprotein Abbexa abx600062-100
Spike Protein
SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike Protein (RBD, His Tag) Sino Biological 40592-V08B-1
Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein, S1 Subunit Raybiotech 230-01101-100
Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein, S2 Subunit Raybiotech 230-01103-100
SARS Spike Antibody MyBioSource MBS151173-0.1
Mouse Anti SARS Spike MyBioSource MBS140075-0.1mg
HE Protein
Recombinant Human coronavirus OC43 Hemagglutinin-esterase(HE) Cusabio CSB-CF326954HIY
Human coronavirus (HCoV-OC43) Hemagglutinin esterase Protein (His Tag) Sino Biological 40603-V08H-100
Coronavirus Hemagglutinin-esterase, Recombinant, Bovine, aa19-424, His-Tag (HE) United States Biological USB-370571
Recombinant Bovine coronavirus Hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) Biomatik BM-RPC20253-50ug
Papain-like Protease
SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (strain WH20) Plpro / papain-like protease (His Tag) Sino Biological 40524-V08E-5
M Protein
SARS-Associated Coronavirus Spike Mosaic S (M) Recombinant Peptides International PEP-SARS-256-100ug
SARS-Associated Coronavirus Spike Mosaic S ( M ) Recombinant ( SARS Mosaic S ( M ) ) Novateinbio PT_42026_500ug
SARS Associated Spike Mosaic S(M) Protein Abbexa abx260155-100
SARS-Associated Coronavirus Spike Mosaic S (M) Recombinant Raybiotech 228-11407-2
SARS Antigens Spike Mosaic Protein S (M) American Research Products ARP-06-30216


A selection of coronavirus receptors

Products Manufacturer Art. No.
Mouse Aminopeptidase N(ANPEP) ELISA kit Cusabio CSB-EL001827MO
Human Aminopeptidase N/ANPEP ELISA Raybiotech ELH-ANPEP-1
Mouse Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 ACE2 ELISA Kit Novateinbio BG-MUS10134
Human ACE2 PicoKine ELISA Kit Boster BOS-EK0997
ELISA Kit for Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) Cloud-Clone SEB886Hu
ACE2 Antibody Enogene E18-5165-1
Rabbit Anti-Human ACE2 (N-term) Raybiotech DS-PB-00042
Anti-ACE2 Antibody St John's Laboratory STJ114610-100
Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV DPP4 ELISA Kit Novateinbio BG-HUM10734
Mouse DPP4 / CD26 Protein (Fc Tag) Sino Biological 50718-M01H-10
Human DPP4 / DPPIV / CD26 Protein Sino Biological 10688-HNCH-20
ELISA Kit for Cluster Of Differentiation 26 (CD26) Cloud-Clone SEA884Hu
Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV ELISA Kit (DPP4) ABclonal RK01278
Human CD26/DPP4 PicoKine ELISA Kit Boster BOS-EK0696
O-ac Sia


A selection of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 top sellers for your research

Products Manufacturer Art. No.
Coronavirus Test Kits
Coronavirus IgM/­IgG Test Kit (Colloidal Gold) Raybiotech CG-CoV-IgG
Coronavirus IgM/­IgG Test Kit (Colloidal Gold) Raybiotech CG-CoV-IgM
SARS-CoV Spike Antibody - 50 uL Sino Biological 40150-D006-50
Anti-SARS-CoV S Therapeutic Antibody (CR3022) - 100µg Creative Biolabs MRO-1214LC-100ug
Anti-SARS-CoV S Therapeutic Antibody Fab Fragment (CR3022) - 0,1mg Creative Biolabs MRO-1214LC-F(E)-0,1mg
Human SARS Coronavirus Spike Antibody, Rabbit PAb, Antigen Affinity Purified - 50 ug Sino Biological 40150-T52-50
Human SARS Coronavirus Spike Antibody, Rabbit PAb, Antigen Affinity Purified - 100 ug Sino Biological 40150-T52-100
Human SARS Coronavirus Spike S1 Subunit Protein Antibody, Rabbit PAb - 200 ug Sino Biological 40150-RP01-200
SARS-­CoV Spike Antibody, Rabbit PAb, Antigen Affinity Purified Sino Biological 40150-T62-COV2-50
SARS-­CoV Spike Antibody, Rabbit PAb, Antigen Affinity Purified Sino Biological 40150-T62-COV2-100
Human SARS Coronavirus Nucleoprotein / NP Antibody, Mouse MAb - 100 ug Sino Biological 40143-MM05-100
Rabbit anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein monoclonal antibody, clone 118 - 100 µl Creative Biolabs CABT-RM321-100UL
SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike Antibody, Rabbit MAb - 50ul Sino Biological 40150-T52-100
SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike Antibody, Rabbit MAb - 100ul Sino Biological 40150-R007-100ul
SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Nucleoprotein / NP Antibody, Rabbit MAb - 100ul Sino Biological 40143-R019-100ul
SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike Protein (S1 Subunit, His tag) - 500ug Sino Biological 40591-V08B1-500ug
SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike Protein (S2 ECD, His tag) - 500ug Sino Biological 40590-V08B-500ug
SARS-CoV-2 (2019-nCoV) Spike(S1) ORF mammalian expression plasmid (Codon Optimized) - 1 Unit Sino Biological VG40591-UT

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