Comparison

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)

The use of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), e.g. against the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), which are directed against the known immune checkpoints, membrane receptors on the surface of immune cells represent the most important tool of immuno-oncology. Immunotherapeutic approaches against cancer

Modern immunotherapy can be divided into four different approaches:

  1. the blockade of the immune checkpoint
  2. the cytokine therapy,
  3. the cell therapy and
  4. therapeutic vaccines

The constant interaction between tumor and immune cells and their importance in the development of cancer is required for understanding the blockage of the immune control point. The aim of the tumor cells is the immune evasion, which means that they want to escape the immune system. For this they have developed complex immunoregulatory mechanisms and are able to suppress the immune responses against them within the tumor microenvironment.

Regulatory T cells (Tregs), dendritic cells (DCs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and regulatory B cells are responsible for establishing an immunosuppressive microenvironment. To this end, cancer cells release inhibitory cytokines into the tumor microenvironment and express checkpoint inhibitors on their surface to suppress the antitumor activity of specific T cells.

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)

The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD 1) is expressed on a subgroup of thymocytes and on activated T and B cells and monocytes. PD-1 is an immune receptor and is part of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The ligands for PD-1 are PD-L1 and PD-L2. Both belong to the family of B7 co-stimulatory molecules. They are found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, endothelial and epithelial cells as well as on activated lymphocytes. The interaction of PD-1 with its PD-L1 and PD-L2 ligands inhibits co-stimulation-induced proliferation and cytokine secretion in T cells. PD-1 acts as an immunomodulatory molecule by down-regulating both T cell and B cell responses.

Monoclonal antibodies against PD-1 / PD-L1

Aim of the immune checkpoint blockade using monoclonal antibodies is the inhibition of intrinsic regulatory mechanisms of the immune system.

PD-1, a membrane receptor for activated T cells, interacts with PD-L1 / 2 to induce inhibition of T cells. Likewise, binding of CTLA-4, another cell membrane receptor on effector T cells, to CD80 / CD86 (B7.1 / 2) on antigen presenting cells (APC) results in suppression of T cell activity. The expression of these receptors on the surface of cancer cells therefore leads to a down-regulated activity of T cells and ultimately to the protection of cancer cells from the immune system. However, an immune checkpoint antibody blocks this immune escape by binding to these receptors and thus enormously supports the immune system in the fight against cancer. In particular, the use of monoclonal anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies (mab) has led to excellent medical reactions in different cancers.

For use in the preclinical field, Bio X Cell offers a tremendous range of antibodies for in vivo research in murine models. You can order these easily with us.

NameBrandArtno.AmountReference

PD-1

Bio X Cell

BE0146-1MG
BE0146-5MG
BE0146-25MG
BE0146-50MG
BE0146-100MG

1MG
5MG
25MG
50MG
100MG

Moynihan et al. 2016
Evans et al. 2015
Ngiow et al. 2015

CTLA-4

Bio X Cell

BE0164-1MG
BE0164-5MG
BE0164-25MG
BE0164-50MG
BE0164-100MG

1MG
5MG
25MG
50MG
100MG

Dai et al., 2015
Zippelius et al., 2015
Condamine et al. 2014